English Architecture — £ 4.99
Not just the usual church architecture. Cathedrals, monasteries, houses (great and small) and shops are all covered in this book, plus some history and explanations of building techniques.
Copiously illustrated, with a glossary and a useful list of sources, should you wish to take the subject further.
Mr. Atkinson was ahead of his time in his views on conservation. Reading this carefully researched work will enhance your knowledge and enjoyment of English buildings, in all their variety.
As published in 1904, this eBook contains the entire text and all illustrations. See the extract below, for the contents, parts of the book and some of the drawings and plans.
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The cover of my original is blank, so I created the one above. The lower photograph shows part of Linton High Street, in Cambridgeshire, where there are examples of building styles from several centuries. The white house in the background belonged to a Mr. Robert Cole in the eighteenth century; his house, and the unseen lane to the right, are still named after him.
In the eBook, but not in the extract, all references in the text to (Fig. 103), see Fig. 82, (Ch. 3), etc., are linked directly to the illustration or explanation concerned.
The text and any images below are identical to the eBook; however, depending on the typeface, etc., that you select, they may not display here exactly as they do on your eReader. Also, pages turn as normal, rather than the scrolling effect seen here.
Chapter I – Romanesque
Saxon: Houses. Churches. Quality of work. Belfries. Quoins. Doors and windows. Columns. Arches. Vaults. Patterns in stone on walls. Methods of construction.
Chapter II – Gothic
Early English: King Henry III. Contrast with Norman. Quality of masonry. Windows. Doors. Buttresses. Columns. Capitals, foliage. Bases. Annulets. Arches. Mouldings. Vaulting. Roofs.
Chapter III – Renaissance
Tudor: Condition of Gothic. Henry VIII.: Gothic with Italian details. Elizabeth: The Germans and Flemings. Gothic traditions, gables, chimneys, etc. Doors and windows. Roofs and ceilings. Tapestry and panelling. Mouldings. Timber buildings. Character of Tudor work.
Chapter IV – Churches
Origin of English church plan. Basilican plan, origin, earliest buildings, Romano-British church. St. Augustine's mission, orientation, early Saxon churches, the cross-plan. Celtic plan, Irish church. Union of Celtic and Basilican plans.
Chapter V – Monasteries
The Benedictines: church, cloister, chapter-house, dormitory, frater, guest-house, infirmary.
Chapter VI – Houses
Norman houses. Thirteenth century. Edward I.: typical plan, growth of house, courtyards, gradual improvement.
Chapter VII – Conclusion
French and English, apse, proportions. Summary of history. Local varieties of style and workmanship.
Chronological list of Buildings and Architects
The Periods of English Architecture
Religious Orders in England at the time of Henry VIII.
List of Illustrations
The subject of English Architecture is so large that it will be necessary to confine the following sketch strictly within the limits – both geographical and chronological – imposed by the term. It will be impossible to attempt a review of Scottish architecture, with its strong national character and piquant French flavour, or of the art of Ireland, which in early days passed through a phase so interesting and far-reaching in its effects. So too with the work of our own country previous to Saxon times. The mighty structures of the Britons, still shrouded in mystery, and the elaborate buildings of the Romans about which we are now learning so much, are connected by so slight a thread with all that followed that the break may, for our present purpose, be considered as absolute.
"For in the lond ther was no crafty man
But from the beginning of the seventeenth century architecture was a matter for architects.
Our earliest domestic buildings date from the twelfth century. After the Conquest stone was more commonly used, and consequently several houses of the Norman period have been preserved to us. The stone-built houses in the towns which still remain appear to have belonged in most cases to Jews, the rich men of the period, and a class which must often have found it necessary to have a house that was capable of defence. The best known are those at Lincoln, in which the principal rooms are on the upper floor. It was a common plan, both in private houses and in the secular buildings of monasteries, to reserve the ground floor for offices and storerooms, and to cover it with a stone vault, supported on a row of columns running down the middle of the building; the living-rooms were placed above, and were sometimes reached by an outside staircase only. In some of the larger houses the hall was on the ground floor, and was divided by arches into a nave and aisles like a church. Westminster Hall, built by William II., was thus divided originally. Probably the columns were often of wood, like those in the Bishop's Palace at Hereford.
Little building was done in the first half of the thirteenth century, but in the latter part houses improved considerably, and the typical manor-house was then gradually developed. The same general arrangement was followed, but there was an advance in refinement and comfort and in the quality of the workmanship. Fireplaces became more common. Glass windows were still almost unknown, even in the king's own houses. The medieval story of King Arthur tells how "there befell a marvellous adventure, that all the doors and the windows of the palace shut by themselves; but for all that the hall was not greatly darkened, and therewith they were all abashed both one and another." [Sir Thomas Malory] Here to close a shutter is thought of as closing a window.
Returning to the lower end of the hall: the end wall, beyond the screens, contained two doors, one opening into the buttery (the "butlery"), the other into a passage leading to the kitchen and larder; frequently there was a third door to the pantry, where bread, butter, etc., were served out. The larder retained its importance till quite recent times, owing to the necessity of larding down large quantities of meat for the winter, while the beasts were still fat. The rooms over the offices were probably bedrooms for women-servants, the men sleeping, as of old, in the hall.
The house was gradually enlarged by adding room to room, especially by extending laterally the wings at each end of the hall. In course of time this led to the formation of a courtyard surrounded by buildings, and sometimes of two courts, one on each side of the hall. From these three stages of development – the central hall with a projecting wing at each end, the single court, and the double court – the normal plan of later times was derived. The smaller houses, of course, continued the simple primitive arrangement more or less, according to circumstances. They were almost always of timber, as indeed were most of the larger houses except in districts where stone was the more easily obtainable. The overhanging of the upper storey was, perhaps, an idea borrowed from the towns, where land was valuable, but it is a method of construction very suitable to timber, and also affords protection from the weather to the lower parts of the walls.
The only other changes made in this plan during the Middle Ages were in matters of detail, tending chiefly to the greater seclusion of the family. The solar becomes more important, and separate bedrooms are provided. The upper rooms at each end of the house, formerly separated by the high central hall, are now sometimes connected by a gallery built out from the side wall of the hall. The staircase remains an insignificant feature. Glass gradually becomes more common, the window is divided by a transom, the lower part having bars and a wood shutter to open, the upper part having glass fixed. Glass was considered to belong to the tenant till the time of Henry VIII.; it was, therefore, sometimes set in a wood frame which was fitted into a rebate in the stonework and could be easily removed. The walls were plastered and painted, the lower part being sometimes boarded or panelled. In the fifteenth century tapestry was much used, but later it gave way to the cheaper "painted cloths" which Falstaff recommended to Mistress Quickly as preferable to "these fly-bitten tapestries."
The medieval shop was a place where goods were made as well as sold, and the master, with his family and apprentices, lived in the upper storeys, not in the suburbs. The building was almost invariably of wood till the eighteenth century, and even then very often only a brick skin was put in front of an old building, so that many an old skeleton still remains behind. The shop window was fitted with two hinged shutters; the lower of these was hinged at the bottom, and was let down during the day into a horizontal position to form a table standing out in the street, on which were exhibited objects for sale; the upper shutter was hung by its upper edge, and was raised to form a pot-house roof to shelter the stall. "With your hat pent-house like o'er the shop of your eyes," says Moth, in Love's Labour's Lost. The door was like the stable door of the present day. This sort of shop front was general till the first half of the eighteenth century, when glass windows were gradually introduced.
Abacus. The top member of a capital.
Acanthus. The leaf of the Corinthian capital.
Almonry. A building where alms were distributed.
Altar, Portable-, or Super-. A small slab, about 12 inches by 6 inches, for use where there was no fixed altar. Allowed only by licence of the Pope. The term super-altar is now applied to the shelf at the back of the communion-table.
Altar-tomb. A tomb resembling a stone altar.
Ambo, Ambone. A pulpit-like lectern in early churches in which the gospel was read; there was a separate one for the epistle.
Ambulatory. A passage; the term is applied to cloisters, and to the aisle round an apse, etc.
Andirons. Fire dogs.
Annulet. A ring; the term is applied to the fillets under the Doric capital and to the hands connecting small detached shafts with the central column or with the wall in Gothic. (Fig. 30)
Anta. A short wall projecting from a building enclosing the end of a portico or a pilaster in place of the wall where the portico is open. [Classic]
Arabesque. A fanciful scroll ornament of leaves and animals and human beings. (Fig. 97) [Renaissance]
Architrave. The lowest and weight-carrying division of the entablature; the moulding round a door or window. [Classic and Renaissance]
Ashlar. Squared and regular masonry.
Atrium. The central and partly covered court of a Roman house.
Attic. A storey above the main entablature.
Aumbry. A small cupboard in a wall.
Baldachino (pron. baldakeno). A canopy; the term is generally applied to an altar canopy.
Ball-flower. (Fig. 59)
Barge-board. A board placed under the gable when the roof projects beyond the wall.
Basilica. (Ch. 4)
Batter. When a wall is intentionally built with a sloping face it is said to batter and the slope is called the batter.
Bay. A compartment of a building; the space between two pairs of columns or two roof principals.
Bay-window. A bow-window.
Bead. A small round moulding. (Fig. 179)
Bed-mould. The moulding under the bold projection of a cornice.
Bevel. A slope made by cutting off an angle.
Bilection-mould. See Bolection-mould.
Billet. A Norman enrichment consisting of a succession of short cylinders lying in a shallow hollow or on a chamfer. (Fig. 31)
Blind storey. A triforium.
Blocking-course. A plain course of stone over a cornice; a plain string-course. [Classic and Ren.] (Fig. 102)
Bolection-mould. A moulding used in wood panellings projecting beyond the face of the framing. [Ren.]
Bond. The overlapping of stones or bricks in a wall. In brick-work from the middle of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century English bond was used. In this system, which is the strongest, one course consists entirely of headers, i.e. bricks showing their ends, and the next course of stretchers or bricks showing their sides, and so on alternately. In Flemish bond all courses are alike and show alternately "headers" and "stretchers."
Bowtel. A round moulding. [Gothic]
Brace. A strut to connect two pieces of timber which are at right angles to one another.
Brattishing. (Fig. 86)
Broach. A half pyramid connecting the angle of a square tower with the face of an octagonal spire. (Fig. 183a)
Cabled flute. See Flute.
Camber. An upward curve or slope in a beam such as the tie-beam of a roof. (Fig. 49)
Cantilever. A bracket
Carrell. (Ch. 5)
Caryatides. Columns in the form of human or grotesque figures.
Casement. (1) A wide shallow moulding (Fig. 81); (2) a window hinged at the side to open like a door.
Chamfer. A bevel.
Checker. The office of an accountant in the Middle Ages
Chevron. (Fig. 24)
Clearstory, or Clerestory. The storey of the nave which is above the roofs of the aisles.
Coffer. A sunk panel in a ceiling dome or vault in
Classic or Renaissance buildings.
Common-house. (Ch. 5)
Composite order. (Ch. 3)
Console. A bracket supporting the cornice over a doorway or window. [Classic] (Fig. 119)
Corinthian order. (Ch. 3)
Crenelle. A parapet with battlements or loopholes.
Crocket. A crook-like leaf or bunch of leaves projecting from the slope of a gable.
Cusp. One of a series of points projecting from the soffit or mouldings of an arch giving a trefoil or multifoil form to the arch.
Decastyle. A portico with a row of ten columns is said to be Decastyle. [Classic]
Dentil. An enrichment in a classical cornice consisting of a series of small square projections.
Diaper. A geometrical pattern, carved or painted on a wall in the Middle Ages.
Dog-tooth. (Fig. 46)
Doric order. (Ch. 3)
Dormer window. A window in a roof.
Dorsal. A curtain at the back of an altar.
Egg and dart. An enrichment in a classical cornice consisting alternately of eggs and darts.
Elemosinaria. An almonry enrichment. (see above).
Entablature. The horizontal superstructure on the columns in classical architecture. It is divided into three parts: the architrave or lintel the frieze and the cornice or projecting member.
Entasis. The slight swelling in a column. [Classic]
Faldstool. A folding stool formerly used for carrying about. The term is now applied to the Litany desk.
Fillet. A band; applied principally to mouldings. (Fig. 182)
Flute. One of a series of channels running up the face of a column. Sometimes it is filled by a staff which runs up to one third of the height of the column and it is then said to be cabled or reeded. [Classic and Ren.]
Footpace. A low platform, a dais.
Frater. The dining-hall in a monastery.
Freestone. Stone which can be worked with the chisel.
Frieze. The middle division of an entablature.
Galilee. The term is applied to a porch, as at Lincoln, and to a chapel, as at Durham, and seems to have been not uncommon. The origin of the term is not known.
Gargoyle (pron. gurgoyle). A projecting spout to throw the rainwater from the gutter clear of the wall.
Geometrical tracery. (Ch. 2)
Groin. The edge formed by the intersection of surfaces in vaulting.
Hagioscope. A squint (which see).
Hammer-beam. (Ch. 2)
Header. See Bond.
Hexastyle. A portico with a row of six columns is said to be Hexastyle. [Classic]
Hip. The angle formed by the intersection of the surfaces of a pyramidal roof. (Fig. 189)
Hood-mould. The projecting moulding over an arch.
Impost. The horizontal projecting member at the springing of an arch.
Ionic order. (Ch. 3)
Jamb. The side of a window or doorway.
King-post. The central vertical post in a roof-truss.
Label. A hood-mould.
Lantern. A timber structure on a roof to admit light or allow the escape of smoke.
Latten. A mixed metal resembling brass.
Lierne vault. (Ch. 2)
Louvre. A lantern (see above); a sloping board in a lantern or belfry window, arranged so as to allow the passage of air without admitting rain.
Lych-gate. (Ch. 4)
Machicolations (pron. makiholations). Small arches carried on corbels to support an overhanging parapet of a castle. There were openings in the gutter so that missiles could be thrown upon assailants.
Mansard Roof. A roof in which the lower part is steep and the central part low pitched.
Metope. The space between two triglyphs in the frieze of the Doric Order. (Ch. 3)
Miserere. A hinged seat in a stall of a church. A bracket was attached to the lower side forming a small secondary seat when the main seat was raised. It was provided for the relief of the infirm during service.
Misericorde. The hall in a monastery in which better fare was allowed than in the frater. (Ch. 5)
Mitre. The line formed by the intersection of mouldings or other surfaces as at the angles of a picture-frame.
Modillion. A bracket under a classical cornice.
Mullion or Monyal. The vertical division between the lights of a window.
Narthex. A porch extending across the end of an early church. (Fig. 123)
Newel. The post at the angle of a staircase. The central column of a circular staircase.
Octostyle. A portico with eight columns is said to be Octostyle. [Classic]
Ogee. A curve composed partly of a convex and partly of a concave line; applied to the sections of mouldings (Fig. 179) and the outlines of arches.
Order. (Ch. 3)
Oriel. A bow-window, either corbelled out from the wall or rising from the ground. (Fig. 94)
Ovolo. A round convex moulding.
Pane. A portion; the term is applied to a window, an alley of a cloister, a side of spire.
Paradise, or Parvise. A courtyard, a cloister garth; now sometimes applied to the room over a church porch.
Pargetting. Plaster-work; the term is generally applied to ornamental outside work.
Parlour. (Fig. 163)
Parvise. See Paradise.
Patera. A small circular ornament in classical architecture. The term is now often applied to any small carved ornament forming one of a series about one-eighth of an inch to a foot.
Pediment. A gable in classical architecture.
Peristyle. A colonnade round a courtyard. [Classic]
Pilaster. A flat rectangular column against a wall.
Piscina. (Fig. 143)
Plate. A piece of timber lying on a wall to receive rafters etc.
Plinth. The base of a wall above the ground; the lower part of the base of a column.
Podium. A high plinth or basement-storey. [Classic]
Poppy-head. A carved filial on the top of a bench-end.
Presbytery. The part of a church in which the high altar stands east of the choir.
Pulpitum. (Ch. 4)
Purlin. A horizontal timber in a roof resting on the principal rafters and supporting the common rafters. (Fig. 71)
Quoin. An angle-stone.
Rebate. A rectangular sinking along the edge of piece of wood or stone. Sometimes spelt and pronounced "rabbit". (Fig. 193)
Reeded flute. See Flute.
Relieving arch. An arch over a lintel.
Respond. A half-column against a wall to receive an arch.
Retum. An angle generally applied to mouldings; thus in Fig. 77, the hood-mould is said to be returned horizontally at the springing of the arch and to be returned against the wall.
Return-stalls. (Ch. 4)
Rubble. Masonry consisting of small irregular stones.
Rustic-work, or Rustication. Ashlar masonry with the surface treated in a particular way. There are several varieties: the face of the stone is left rough or is artificially roughened; or it is smooth but projects and has chamfered or rebated edges. (Fig. 107)
Sacristy. (See Vestry.)
Saddle-bar. A horizontal bar of iron in a window.
Sanctus-bell. A bell rung at the consecration of the Host.
Sedilia. A seat for the clergy on the south side of an altar.
Severy. A bay or compartment of a building.
Shingle. A roof-tile made of split oak.
Sofit. The underside of a cornice arch etc.
Solar. (Ch. 6)
Spandrel. Applied to almost any surface of irregular form: such as the spaces above an arch; between an arch and a cusp; between the ribs of a vault.
Splay. A large chamfer, as to the jamb of a window, etc.
Squinch. An arch built across each angle of a tower to form an octagon to carry a spire.
Squint. A hole cut obliquely through the wall of a church to give a view of the high altar.
Stanchion. A vertical iron bar in a window.
Stele. An upright slab of stone sculptured in relief, erected as a memorial to the dead. [Classic]
Stilted arch. An arch of which the springing is above the capital.
Stoup, or Stock, Holy-water-. A hollow stone near the entrance of a church to contain holy-water.
Strap-work. (Ch. 3)
String. A horizontal projecting moulding. [Gothic.]
Terra-cotta. Vitrified brick.
Tetrastyle. A portico with a row of three columns is said to be Tetrastyle.
Transom. A horizontal division in a window.
Triforiiun. An upper storey over the aisle of a church.
Triglyph. An ornament in a Doric frieze, consisting of a projection with the two vertical edges chamfered and with two vertical grooves.
Triptic. A painted panel with two folding-doors, generally used as a reredos.
Tudor flower. An upright leaf used in cresting on the tops of cornices, etc. (Fig. 86)
Tuscan order. (Ch. 3)
Tympanum. The space enclosed (1) between the lintel of a doorway and the relieving arch (Fig. 26), or (2) between the horizontal and sloping cornices of a classical pediment. (Fig. 119)
Valley. The angle formed by the intersection of two roofs.
Vesica piscis. The pointed oval forming the auriole or glory round representations of the Deity and the Virgin. (Fig. 26)
Vestry, or Revestry, or Sacristy, (Ch. 4)
Volute. A spiral; the characteristic ornament of the Ionic capital.
Voussoir. An arch-stone.
Wainscot. Panelling on a wall; foreign oak much used for panelling.
Wall-plate. The horizontal timber on which rafters and joists rest.
Wave moulding. A section used in the fourteenth century.
Weathering. A sloping surface of stone, as at the top of a buttress.
Windbrace. A timber springing from the principal rafter, or other member of a roof-truss, to support the purlin and to prevent longitudinal movement in the roof.
Zigzag. A Norman enrichment. (Fig. 25)