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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle  —  £ 3.99

Go to the eBook Shop The single most important surviving source for the history of Britain; from the arrival of the Romans up to 1154, and the first one written in the native language (Old English). Without it, J.R.R.Tolkien and the whole 'Sword and Sorcery' industry would have struggled for inspiration – see some of the names in the Index.

Started in the 9th century, at the request of King Alfred the Great, the original was a collaborative project, and so is this edition. Taking all the known copies and several translations, J. A. Giles edited them into an accessible book of interest to the general reader and the scholar.

This eBook contains the entire text of a 'new' version (from 1914) of the book originally published in 1847. Please see the extract below for the Preface, Introduction and a random selection of entries.

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Notes

The final sentence of the entry for 1065 may well be the world's greatest ever understatement:-
"And this year also was Harold consecrated king; and he with little quiet abode therein, the while that he wielded the realm."

The cover of my original is blank so I made the one above using part of the frontispiece, which is a facsimile of the first page of one of the surviving manuscripts.

Extract

The text and any images below are identical to the eBook; however, depending on the typeface, etc., that you select, they may not display here exactly as they do on your eReader. Also, pages turn as normal, rather than the scrolling effect seen here.

 

Preface

     The work which is commonly known as the Saxon or Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a chronological record of important events, chiefly relating to the English race, from the earliest period of the Christian era to the XII. century. It is of a composite character, and has been preserved to the present day in the form of six more or less complete ancient MSS., some of which appear to be independent of each other though traceable to some common original, whilst others are apparently more nearly related by obvious similarities. Four of these are in the British Museum, one in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and another in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. In addition to these, there is, in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, a copy made in 1563-4, by William Lambard, of a MS. which now exists only in the shape of three disfigured leaves. It is one of the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, some of which were damaged or destroyed by a fire in Little Dean’s Yard, Westminster, in the year 1731. Before its destruction this MS. was printed by Abraham Wheloc in 1633-4; and it is evident that, as far as it goes, it is a copy of the Cambridge MS. These seven MSS., including the one which is represented by the Dublin copy and Wheloc’s printed edition, have been distinguished as follows:-

    Ending
   at
 
1. At Cambridge 1070 A
2. In the British Museum   977 B
3 In the British Museum 1066 C
4. In the British Museum 1079 D
5. In the Bodleian Library
(imperfect)
1154 E
6. In the British Museum
(imperfect)
1058 F
7. {The Dublin MS. copy
{Wheloc's printed copy
1001 G
or W†

[† In Mr. Charles Plummer’s edition of “Two Saxon Chronicles parallel” the text of G is indicated by the letter A as being a copy of the Cambridge MS., which he distinguishes by the symbol Ã. To his introduction to those parallel texts à and E (Clarendon Press, 1899) every student who requires an exhaustive description, analysis and comparison of all the existing texts in referred.]

     MS. A (CCCC 173) is part of the bequest of Archbishop Parker (died 1575) to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and is now generally known as the Parker MS. It is written in many different hands, but as the entries down to 891 are all in one script, consistent with that date, it is not unreasonable to assume that this copy dates from the days of Alfred the Great, to whom the initiation of this national chronicle is without doubt to be ascribed. It is also obvious from the entries that it was written at his royal city of Winchester, though it was at a later date supplemented by contemporary scribes at Canterbury. There are, moreover, many interpolations by later hands, and notes by Joscelin, Archbishop Parker’s secretary. It is generally regarded as the standard text.
     MS. B, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. A vi.) is all in one hand, and is supposed to have been copied about the year 1000, which is not remote from the year 977, at which it ends. The chronicle from which it was directly or indirectly copied was associated with the monastery of Abingdon.
     MS. C, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. B i.), is also connected with the same monastery, and has been called the Abingdon Chronicle. It is written in several hands, but from the regularity of its pages it seems to have been transcribed as a whole. It has many annotations of the XVI. century. A peculiarity of both B and C, showing a close connexion, is that they interpolate bodily a number of annals (from 902 to 924) dealing mainly with the deeds of Æthelfled, a Lady of the Mercians, generally designated as the Mercian Register.
     MS. D, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. B iv.) is written in several hands, and brings the chronicle down to 1079, but a considerable portion, comprising the years 262 to 693, is missing. The lacuna has been filled by insertions made by Joscelin from monastic records in other versions of the Chronicle. The original MS., though by seven or eight different hands, was all compiled in the latter half of the XI. century, with the exception of one late entry of 1130.† It agrees mostly with MS. C.

[† This date, in the MS., is 1080. Mr. Plummer has pointed out that MLXXX. has been erroneously written for MCXXX.]

     MS. E, in the Bodleian Library (Laud Misc. 636), was formerly in the possession of Archbishop Laud. It extends to the year 1154, though the last leaf is missing. The greater part of it, to 1121, is apparently in one hand, but the latest entries are probably contemporary with the events described. Owing to the numerous entries relating to Peterborough, it evidently came into the possession of that monastery. Its pedigree, as traceable from the original chronicle, diverges more than any other from that of MS. A, with which it has therefore a considerable complementary importance, for which reason Messrs. Earle and Plummer made these two texts the groundwork of their editions.
     MS. F, in the British Museum (Cott. Dom. A viii.), extends to 1058, but is mutilated at the end. It is a compilation from other transcripts, and has little original value, its most remarkable feature being that it is bi-lingual, each entry being written in Latin as well as English.
     MS. G, the few remains of which are in the British Museum (Cott. Otho B xi), is now only known by the Dublin copy and by Wheloc’s printed version. It is practically a copy of A.
     The minute and exhaustive investigation of the subject by Mr. Plummer, from whom some of these particulars are derived, has proved that the original chronicle established by Alfred the Great, or any direct copy of it, is no longer extant. MSS. A, B and C, which are practically identical to the year 892, doubtless represent its substance to that date, but it will be noticed by the student that in all of these, from the middle of the eighth century to the middle of the ninth, the events are misdated by two or three years. This has arisen from the fact that a date left blank in the original copy has occasionally been inadvertently filled by the transcriber with the next entry, and so caused a general ante-dating of the succeeding annals. But the later portions of MSS. A, C, D and E may all be regarded as contemporary chronicles, and not open to suspicion on chronological grounds. A complete analytical edition in modern English, with corrected dates, is still, and must perhaps remain, a desideratum.
     The first printed edition of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was that by Abraham Wheelock, or Wheloc, Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. His text was compiled from MS. G (not then destroyed), with additions from A, and was accompanied by a Latin translation.
     Forty-nine years later a more complete edition, with a Latin translation, was published by Edmund Gibson, of Queen’s College, Oxford, afterwards Bishop of London.
     The first translation into modern English, based on Gibson’s version, was made by Miss Anna Gurney, and privately printed at Norwich in 1819. It was a work of great ability, but its publication was prevented by the appearance in 1823 of a text and English translation by Dr. James Ingram, President of Trinity College, Oxford, who had the advantage of his predecessors in collating all the extant MSS.
     The following translation by Dr. Giles appeared in 1847. It was based on the materials prepared under the superintendence of Henry Petrie, formerly Keeper of the Records in the Tower. Dr. Giles also acknowledged his obligations to Miss Gurney’s translation, which he used to complete the chronicle, and to Dr. Ingram’s account of the various MSS. Mr. Petrie’s materials were, in the meantime, used in the compilation of the first volume of Monumenta Historica Britannica, which was published in 1848, and gives a composite text and translation as far as 1066. It was not carried further, as the projected continuation of the work was merged in the well-known series of records issued under the authority of the Master of the Rolls. In this series was afterwards (in 1861) included Mr. Thorpe’s six-text edition with a translation.
     A good translation, which was based on, and completed that given in Monumenta Historica Britannica, by the Rev. J. Stevenson, of Durham University, appeared in 1853.
     In an edition of the Chronicle there is no satisfactory compromise between a complete collation and what is called a conflation of the various texts. Mr. Plummer has, with the assistance of Mr. Thorpe’s six-text edition, brought the former plan to as near perfection as possible, and thereby, with his remarkably discerning introduction and notes, earned the gratitude of all succeeding historians and workers in the same field. For the ordinary inquirer, a cheap and handy amalgamation of the texts such as that which follows may still, it is hoped, have its more commonplace uses. It appeared originally in the same volume as the translation of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History; but as this has now been superseded by Miss A. M. Sellar’s version it has been found convenient to re-issue the Chronicle as an independent volume, and to introduce some improvements in its form.

E. B.

Introduction

      The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is apparently the work of many successive hands, and extends in different copies from the time of Cæsar's invasion to the middle of the twelfth century. As it has been repeatedly printed, it may suffice here to repeat, that, with the exception of the insertions placed within brackets, the text to the year 975 is mostly taken from the MS. designated by the letter A.; from that period to 1079 from MSS. A. C. D. E. F. and G., and from thence to the conclusion from MS. E.: and that such portions of the different MSS. as are concurrent with the text, but will not conveniently admit of collation, are given separately in a smaller type. These variations will sometimes convey the same information two or three times over: but it has been deemed advisable to retain all of them that the reader may have a more ample means of judging of the authority of this invaluable national record.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

     (The island of Britain† is eight hundred miles long and two hundred miles broad: and here in this island are five tongues; English, British, Scottish, Pictish, and Latin. The first inhabitants of this land were Brittons; they came from Armenia, [Armorica] and first settled in the south of Britain. Then befell it that Picts came from the south from Scythia, with long ships, not many, and first landed in North Hibernia, and there entreated the Scots that they might there abide. But they would not permit them, for they said that they could not all abide there together. And then the Scots said, ‘We may nevertheless give you counsel. We know another island eastward of this, where ye may dwell if ye will, and if any one withstand you, we will assist you, so that you may subdue it.’ Then went the Picts and subdued this land northwards; the southern part the Britons had, as we before have said. And the Picts obtained wives for themselves of the Scots, on this condition, that they should always choose their royal lineage on the woman’s side; which they have held ever since. And then befell it in the course of years that some part of the Scots departed from Hibernia into Britain, and conquered some portion of the land. And their leader was called Reoda; from whom they are named Dalreodi.‡)

[† This description of Britain is taken from Bede’s Ecclesiastical History. – l. i. c. 1.]
[‡ Dal signifies a division or part. – Cf. Bede l. i. c. 1.]

     Sixty years before Christ was born, Gaius Julius, emperor of the Romans, with eighty ships, sought Britain. There he was at first distressed by a fierce battle, and a large portion of his army was dispersed. And then he left his army to abide among the Scots,† and went south into Gaul, and there collected six hundred ships, with which he came again into Britain. And as they first rushed together, the emperor’s ‘gerrefa’‡ was slain: he was called Labienus. Then the Welsh took large and sharp stakes and drove them into the fording place of a certain river under water; this river was called Thames. When the Romans discovered this, then would they not go over the ford. Then fled the Britons to the wood-wastes, and the emperor conquered very many of their chief cities after a great struggle, and departed again into Gaul.

[† “This is an error, arising from the inaccurately written MSS. of Orosius and Bede; where in Hibernia and in Hiberniam occur for in hiberna. The error is retained in Wheloc’s Bede.” – Ingram]
[‡ “Tribune.” – Ingram]

     Before the incarnation of Christ sixty years, Gaius Julius the emperor, first of the Romans, sought the land of Britain; and he crushed the Britons in battle, and overcame them: and nevertheless he was unable to gain any empire there.

A.D. 1.

     Octavianus reigned fifty-six years; and in the forty-second year of his reign Christ was born.

A. 2.

     The three astrologers came from the eastern parts in order that they might worship Christ. And the children were slain at Bethlehem, in persecution of Christ by Herod.

A. 3.

     This year died Herod, having stabbed himself, and Archelaus his son succeeded to the government. And the child Christ was brought back again from Egypt.

~~~

A. 430.

     This year Patrick was sent by pope Celestine to preach baptism to the Scots.

A. 431.–442.

A. 443.

     This year the Britons sent over sea to Rome, and begged for help against the Picts; but they had none, because they were themselves warring against Attila, king of the Huns. And then they sent to the Angles, and entreated the like of the ethelings of the Angles.

A. 444.

     This year St. Martin died.

A. 445.–447.

A. 448.

     This year John the Baptist revealed his head to two monks, who came from the east to offer up their prayers at Jerusalem, on the spot which was formerly Herod’s residence.

A. 449.

     This year Martianus and Valentinus succeeded to the empire, and reigned seven years. And in their days Hengist and Horsa, invited by Vortigern king of the Britons, landed in Britain on the shore which is called Wippidsfleet; at first in aid of the Britons, but afterwards they fought against them. King Vortigern gave them land in the south-east of this country, on condition that they should fight against the Picts. Then they fought against the Picts, and had the victory wheresoever they came. They then sent to the Angles; desired a larger force to be sent, and caused them to be told the worthlessness of the Britons, and the excellencies of the land. Then they soon sent thither a larger force in aid of the others. At that time there came men from three tribes in Germany; from the Old-Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes. From the Jutes came the Kentish-men and the Wightwarians, that is, the tribe which now dwells in Wight, and that race among the West-Saxons which is still called the race of Jutes. From the Old-Saxons came the men of Essex and Sussex and Wessex. From Anglia, which has ever since remained waste betwixt the Jutes and Saxons, came the men of East Anglia, Middle Anglia, Mercia, and all North-humbria. Their leaders were two brothers, Hengist and Horsa: they were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden: from this Woden sprang all our royal families, and those of the South-humbrians also. And in their days Vortigern invited the Angles thither, and they came to Britain in three ceols, at the place called Wippidsfleet:

A. 450.–454.

A. 455.

     This year Hengist and Horsa fought against king Vortigern at the place which is called Ægels-threp, [Aylesford] and his brother Horsa was there slain, and after that Hengist obtained the kingdom and Æsc his son.

A. 456.

     This year Hengist and Æsc slew four troops of Britons with the edge of the sword, in the place which is named Creccanford, [Crayford†].

[† The positions usually assigned to various places mentioned in the earlier portion of the Chronicle, are often very uncertain, depending chiefly on a supposed or real similarity of names. Where these, however, appear sufficiently probable, they are placed between brackets, if otherwise a quære is added.]

A. 457.

     This year Hengist and Æsc his son fought against the Britons at the place which is called Crecganford, [Crayford,] and there slew four thousand men; and the Britons then forsook Kent, and in great terror fled to London.

~~~

A. 658.

     This year Kenwalk fought against the Welsh at Peonna [Pen]; and he drove them as far as Pedrida, [Petherton?] this was fought after he came from East-Anglia; he was there three years in exile. Thither had Penda driven him and deprived him of his kingdom, because he had forsaken his sister.

A. 659.

A. 660.

     This year Bishop Agilbert departed from Kenwalk, and Wini held the bishopric [of Wessex, at Winchester] three years, and Agilbert obtained the bishopric of Paris in France by the Seine.

A. 661.

     This year, during Easter, Kenwalk fought at Pontesbury, and Wulfhere, the son of Penda, laid the country waste as far as Ashdown. And Cuthred the son of Cuichelm and king Cenbert† died in one year. And Wulfhere the son of Penda laid waste Wight, and gave the people of Wight to Ethelwald king of the South-Saxons, because Wulfhere had been his sponsor at baptism. And Eappa the mass-priest, by the command of Wilfrid and King Wulfhere, was the first of men who brought baptism to the people of the Isle of Wight.

[† “Father of Cædwalla, king of Wessex. See A. 685.” – Petrie]

A. 662. 663.

A. 664.

     This year the sun was eclipsed on the 5th before the Nones of May; and Earconbert king of the Kentish-men died, and Egbert his son succeeded to the kingdom; and Colman, [Bishop of Lindisfarne] with his companions, went to his country. The same year there was a great pestilence in the island of Britain, and bishop [of Lindisfarne] Tuda died of the pestilence, and was buried at Wagele. And Chad and Wilfrid were ordained; and the same year archbishop Deus-dedit died.

~~~

A. 853.

     This year Burhred, king of the Mercians, and his council, begged of king Ethelwulf that he would assist him so that he might make the North-Welsh obedient to him. He then did so; and went with an army across Mercia among the North-Welsh, and made them all obedient to him. And the same year king Ethelwulf sent his son Alfred to Rome. Leo [IV.] was then pope of Rome; and he consecrated him king, and took him for his son at confirmation. Then, in the same year, Ealhere, with the men of Kent, and Huda, with the men of Surry, fought in Thanet, against the heathen army; and at first they were victorious; and many there were slain, and drowned on either hand, and both the ealdormen were killed. And upon this after Easter Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, gave his daughter to Burhred king of the Mercians.

A. 854.

A. 855.

     This year the heathen men, for the first time, remained over winter in Sheppey: and the same year king Ethelwulf gave by charter the tenth part of his land throughout his realm for the glory of God and his own eternal salvation. And the same year he went to Rome in great state, and dwelt there twelve months, and then returned homewards. And then Charles, king of the Franks gave him his daughter to wife; and after that he came to his people, and they were glad of it. And about two years after he came from France he died, and his body lies at Winchester. And he reigned eighteen years and a half. And Ethelwulf was the son of Egbert, Egbert of Elmund, Elmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild; Ingild was Ina’s brother, king of the West-Saxons, he who held the kingdom thirty-seven years, and afterwards went to St. Peter, and there resigned his life; and they were the sons of Kenred, Kenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Frithogar of Brond, Brond of Beldeg, Beldeg of Woden, Woden of Frithowald, Frithowald of Frealaf, Frealaf of Frithuwulf. Frithuwulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Geat, Geat of Tætwa, Tætwa of Beaw, Beaw of Sceldi, Sceldi of Heremod, Heremod of Itermon, Itermon of Hathra, Hathra of Guala, Guala of Bedwig, Bedwig of Sceaf, that is, the son of Noah, he was born in Noah’s ark; Lamech, Methusalem, Enoh, Jared, Malalahel, Cainion, Enos, Seth, Adam the first man, – and our Father, that is, Christ. Amen. Then Ethelwulf’s two sons succeeded to the kingdom; Ethelbald succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons; and Ethelbert to the kingdom of the Kentish-men, and to the kingdom of the East-Saxons, and to Surry, and to the kingdom of the South-Saxons; and then Ethelbald reigned five years. Alfred his third son he had sent to Rome: and when Pope Leo [IV.] heard say that Ethelwulf was dead, he consecrated Alfred king, and held him as his spiritual son at confirmation, even as his father Ethelwulf had requested on sending him thither.

A. 856.–859.

A. 860.

     This year died king Ethelbald, and his body lies at Sherborne; and Ethelbert succeeded to all the realm of his brother, and he held it in goodly concord and in great tranquillity. And in his days a large fleet came to land, and the crews stormed Winchester. And Osric the ealdorman, with the men of Hampshire, Ethelwulf the ealdorman, with the men of Berkshire, fought against the army, and put them to flight, and had possession of the place of carnage. And Ethelbert reigned five years, and his body lies at Sherborne.

A. 861.

     This year died St. Swithun the bishop. [of Winchester]

A. 862.–864.

A. 865.

     This year the heathen army sat down in Thanet, and made peace with the men of Kent, and the men of Kent promised them money for the peace; and during the peace and the promise of money the army stole away by night, and ravaged all Kent to the eastward.

A. 866.

     This year Ethelred, Ethelbert’s brother, succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons: and the same year a great heathen army came to the land of the English nation, and took up their winter quarters among the East-Angles, and there they were horsed; and the East-Angles made peace with them.

A. 867.

     This year the army went from East-Anglia over the mouth of the Humber to York in North-humbria. And there was much dissension among that people, and they had cast out their king Osbert, and had taken to themselves a king, Ælla, not of royal blood; but late in the year they resolved that they would fight against the army; and therefore they gathered a large force, and sought the army at the town of York, and stormed the town, and some of them got within, and there was an excessive slaughter made of the North-humbrians, some within, some without, and the kings were both slain: and the remainder made peace with the army. And the same year bishop Ealstan died; and he had the bishopric of Sherborne fifty years, and his body lies in the town.

A. 868.

     This year the same army went into Mercia to Nottingham, and there took up their winter quarters. And Burhred king of the Mercians, and his ‘witan,’ begged of Ethelred king of the West-Saxons, and of Alfred his brother, that they would help them, that they might fight against the army. And then they went with the West-Saxon power into Mercia as far as Nottingham, and there met with the army within the fortress; and besieged them therein: but there was no great battle; and the Mercians made peace with the army.

~~~

A. 1048.

     In this year was a great earthquake wide throughout England. In the same year Sandwich and the Isle of Wight were ravaged, and the chief men that were there slain. And after that king Edward and the earls went out with their ships. And in the same year bishop Siward resigned the bishopric on account of his infirmity, and went to Abingdon, and archbishop Eadsine again received the bishopric: [of Canterbury] and he [Siward] died within eight weeks after, on the 10th before the Kalends of November.

~~~

A. 1066.

     In this year king Harold came from York to Westminster, at that Easter which was after the mid-winter in which the king died; and Easter was then on the day 16th before the Kalends of May. Then was, over all England, such a token seen in the heavens, as no man ever before saw. Some men said that it was cometa the star, which some men call the haired star; and it appeared first on the eve Litania Major, the 8th before the Kalends of May and so shone all the seven nights. And soon after came In Tosty the earl from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight, with 80 great a fleet as he might procure; and there they yielded him as well money as food. And king Harold, his brother, gathered so great a ship-force, and also a land-force, as no king here in the land had before done; because it was made known to him that William the bastard would come hither and win this land; all as it afterwards happened. And the while, came Tosty the earl into Humber with sixty ships; and Edwin the earl came with a land-force and drove him out. And the boatmen forsook him; and he went to Scotland with twelve vessels. And there met him Harold king of Norway with three hundred ships; and Tosty submitted to him and became his man. And they then went both into Humber, until they came to York; and there fought against them Edwin the earl, and Morkar the earl, his brother: but the Northmen had the victory. Then was it made known to Harold king of the Angles that this had thus happened: and this battle was on the vigil of St. Matthew. Then came Harold our king unawares on the Northmen, and met with them beyond York, at Stanford-bridge, with a great army of English people; and there during the day was a very severe fight on both sides. There was slain Harold the Fair-haired, and Tosty the earl; and the Northmen who were there remaining were put to flight; and the English from behind hotly smote them, until they came, some, to their ships, some were drowned, and some also burned; and thus in divers ways they perished, so that there were few left: and the English had possession of the place of carnage. The king then gave his protection to Olave, son of the king of the Norwegians, and to their bishop, and to the earl of Orkney, and to all those who were left in the ships: and they then went up to our king, and swore oaths that they ever would observe peace and friendship towards this land; and the king let them go home with twenty-four ships. These two general battles were fought within five days. Then came William earl of Normandy into Pevensey, on the eve of St. Michael’s-mass: and soon after they were on their way, they constructed a castle at Hasting’s-port. This was then made known to king Harold, and he then gathered a great force, and came to meet him at the estuary of Appledore; and William came against him unawares, before his people were set in order. But the king nevertheless strenuously fought against him with those men who would follow him; and there was great slaughter made on either hand. There was slain king Harold, and Leofwin the earl, his brother, and Girth the earl, his brother, and many good men; and the Frenchmen had possession of the place of carnage, all as God granted them for the people’s sins. Archbishop Aldred and the townsmen of London would then have child Edgar for king, all as was his true natural right: and Edwin and Morcar vowed to him that they would fight together with him. But in that degree that it ought ever to have been forwarder, so was it from day to day later and worse; so that at the end all passed away. This fight was done on the day of Calixtus the pope. And William the earl went afterwards again to Hastings, and there awaited to see whether the people would submit to him. But when he understood that they would not come to him, he went upwards with all his army which was left to him, and that which afterwards had come from over sea to him; and he plundered all that part which he over-ran, until he came to Berkhampstead. And there came to meet him archbishop Aldred, [of York] and child Edgar, and Edwin the earl, and Morcar the earl, and all the chief men of London; and then submitted, for need, when the most harm had been done: and it was very unwise that they had not done so before; since God would not better it, for our sins: and they delivered hostages, and swore oaths to him; and he vowed to them that he would be a loving lord to them: and nevertheless, during this, they plundered all that they over-ran. Then, on mid-winter’s day, archbishop Aldred consecrated him king at Westminster; and he gave him a pledge upon Christ’s book, and also swore, before he would set the crown upon his head, that he would govern this nation as well as any king before him had at the best done, if they would be faithful to him. Nevertheless, he laid a tribute on the people, very heavy; and then went, during Lent, over sea to Normandy, and took with him archbishop Stigand, and Aylnoth, abbat of Glastonbury, and child Edgar, and Edwin the earl, and Morcar the earl, 4nd Waltheof the earl, and many other good men of England. And bishop Odo† and William the earl remained here behind, and they built castles wide throughout the nation, and poor people distressed; and ever after it greatly grew in evil. May the end be good when God will!

[† Odo, bishop of Bayeux, half brother of king William, and William Fitz Osbert, created earl of Hereford.]

A. 1068.

     This year king William gave the earldom of Northumberland to earl Robert, and the men of that country came against him, and slew him and 900 others with him. And then Edgar etheling marched with all the Northumbrians to York, and the townsmen treated with him; on which king William came from the south with all his troops, and sacked the town, and slew many hundred persons. He also profaned St. Peter’s minster, and all other places, and the etheling went back to Scotland.
     After this came Harold’s sons from Ireland, about Mid summer, with sixty-four ships and entered the mouth of the Taff, where they incautiously landed. Earl Beorn came upon them unawares with a large army, and slew all their bravest men: the others escaped to their ships, and Harold’s sons went back again to Ireland.

A. 1069.

     This year died Aldred archbishop of York, and he lies buried in his cathedral church. He died on the festival of Protus and Hyacinthus, having held the see with much honour ten years, all but fifteen weeks.
     Soon after this, three of the sons of Sweyne came from Denmark with 240 ships, together with earl Osbern and earl Thorkill, into the Humber; where they were met by child Edgar and earl Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and earl Cospatric with the men of Northumberland and all the landsmen, riding and marching joyfully with an immense army; and so they went to York, demolished the castle, and found there large treasures. They also slew many hundred Frenchmen, and carried off many prisoners to their ships; but, before the shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and plundered and burnt St. Peter’s minster. When the king heard of this, he went northward with all the troops he could collect, and laid waste all the shire; whilst the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber, where the king could not get at them. The king was at York on midwinter’s day, remaining on land all the winter, and at Easter he came to Winchester.
     This year bishop Egelric being at Peterborough, was accused and sent to Westminster; and his brother bishop Egelwin was outlawed. And the same year Brand abbat of Peterborough died on the fifth before the Kalends of December.

~~~

A. 1077.

     This year a peace was made between the king of France and William king of England, but it lasted only a little while. And this year, one night before the assumption of St. Mary, there was a more dreadful fire in London than had ever happened since the town was built. And the moon was eclipsed, three nights before candlemas: the same year died Egelwig abbat of Evesham, on the fourteenth day before the Kalends of March, which was the mass-day of St. Juliana; and Walter became bishop in his stead. Bishop Herman also died on the tenth day before the Kalends of March. He was bishop in Berkshire, Wiltshire, and Dorsetshire. Also in this year king Malcolm won the mother of Malslaythe and all his best men and all his treasure and his oxen and himself hardly escaped…. There was also this year a dry summer, and wild-fire burned many towns, and many cities were ruined by it.

~~~

A. 1085.

     This year men said and reported as certain, that Canute king of Denmark, the son of king Sweyn, was coming hither, and that he designed to conquer this land, with the assistance of Robert earl of Flanders, whose daughter he had married. When king William, who was then in Normandy, heard this, for England and Normandy were both his, he hastened hither with a larger army of horse and foot, from France and Brittany, than had ever arrived in this land, so that men wondered how the country could feed them all. But the king billeted the soldiers upon his subjects throughout the nation, and they provided for them, every man according to the land that he possessed. And the people suffered much distress this year: and the king caused the country near the sea to be laid waste, that if his enemies landed they might the less readily find any plunder. Afterwards when he had received certain information that they had been stopped, and that they would not be able to proceed in this enterprise, he let part of his forces return to their own homes, and he kept part in this laud through the winter.

~~~

A. 1103.

     This year king Henry was at Westminster at Christmas. And soon afterwards the bishop William Giffard departed from this land, because he would not against right receive consecration from Gerard archbishop of York. And at Easter the king held his court at Winchester; and afterwards, Anselm archbishop of Canterbury journeyed to Rome, as he and the king had agreed. This year also earl Robert of Normandy came to this land, to speak with the king, and before he departed hence he gave up the 3000 marks which king Henry should have paid him yearly according to the treaty. This year blood was seen gushing out of the earth at Hampstead, [Finchampstead] in Berkshire. This was a year of much distress from the manifold taxes, and also from a mortality among the cattle, and from the failure of the crops, both of the corn and all fruits of trees. In the morning also of St. Lawrence’s day, the wind did so much damage to all the fruit of this land, that no man remembered the like to have ever happened before. The same year died Matthias abbat of Peterborough, who had not lived more than one year after he was made abbat. After Michaelmas, on the 12th before the Kalends of November, he was received in procession as abbat, and the same day the year following he died at Gloucester, and there he was buried.

~~~

A. 1138.

     This year David king of Scotland entered this Land with an immense army resolving to conquer it, and William earl of Albemarle, to whose charge the king had committed York, and other trusty men, came against him with few troops, and fought with him, and they put the king to flight at the Standard, and slew a great part of his followers.

~~~

Index

Abon, ealdorman 22
Acca, bishop of Hexham 31 33
Acley, synod of 40
Adrian, emperor of Rome 5
Adrian, legate, in England 26
Adrian, pope 39 40
Adrian, abbat. See Hadrian
Ælla, king of the South Saxons 8
Ælla, usurper of Northumbria 49
Æsc, king of Kent 8
Agelric, bishop of Selsey 133
Agilbert, bishop 18 23
Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne 18
Albinus, abbat of St. Augustine’s Preface
Alban (St.) 5
Alban’s (St.) monastery 183
Alcred, king of Northumbria 37
Alcuin. See Albinus
Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne 31
Aldred, bishop 118 123 126 129 132 134 144
Aldulf, archbishop of York 80 81 88 94
Aldwulf, bishop of Rochester 32 33
Alexander, bishop of Lincoln 190
Alexander, king of Scotland 180 191
Alfric, archbishop of Canterbury 89-96
Alfric, ealdorman 87
Alfred, king of England 47-64
Alfrid, king of Deira 27 30
Alfun, bishop of Dunwich 42
Alfwold, bishop of Sherborne 85
Alfwold, king of Northumbria 38 39
Alhmund, bishop of Hexham 37 38
Alla, king of Northumbria 10 12
Alric killed 42
Alwy, bishop of London 103
Alwyn, bishop of Winchester 111 116 118
Anlaf Curran 77
Anlaf, king of Northumbria 74-76
Anlaf, son of Sihtric 76
Anna, king of the East Angles 18
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury 148 166 171 175-177 180
Anselm, abbat of Bury St. Edmund’s 183
Anwind, a Danish king 53
Asser, bishop of Sherborne 66
Athelard, archbp. of Canterbury 40-43
Athelred, archbp. of Canterbury 50 57
Athelstan, bishop of Hereford 132
Athelstan, king of Kent 45 46
Athelstan, king of Mercia 72-75
Attila, king of the Huns 6
Athulf, bishop 81
Augustine, archbishop of Canterbury 12 13

Baccancelde (Beckenham) council 29
Bagsac, a Danish king, killed 51
Baldred, king of Kent 44
Baldulf, bishop of Whitherne 40
Baldwin V., earl of Flanders 120 136
Baldwin VI., earl of Flanders 150
Baldwin VII., earl of Flanders 182-186
Bambrough (Bebba), a royal city 10 170
Bassianus, son of Severus 5
Bass, mass-priest 24
Battle Abbey founded 159 168
Bede (Venerable) 33
Benedict (St.) 8 9 159
Beonna, abbat of Peterborough 38
Beorn, earl 117 121-123
Beornmod, bishop of Rochester 42
Beort, ealdorman 27 30
Bernard, bishop of St. David’s 189
Bernred, king of Mercia 36
Bernulf, king of Mercia 44
Berthwald, archbishop of Canterbury 29 32 38
Berthwulf, king of Mercia, defeated 46
Bertric, king of Wessex 39 42
Bieda arrives in Britain 9
Birinus, bishop 16-18
Blecca, governor of Lincoln 16
Bosa, bishop of York 27 28
Bregowin, archbp. of Canterbury 36 37
Brihtege, bishop of Worcester 111 112
Brinstan, bishop of Winchester 73
Britain 1 2 6
Brithmar, bishop of Lichfield 113
Brithwin, bishop of Sherborne 109 115 116
Britnoth, abbat of Ely 79
Brocmail 13
Burhred, king of Mercia 47 52
Burton abbey 141

Cadwalla, king of the West Britons 16
Cædwalla, king of Wessex 27 28
Cæsar’s, Julius, invasion 2
Canterbury cathedral 197
Canute, king of England 102-113
Canute, king of Denmark 156 161
Canute, prince of Denmark 153
Ceawlin or Celin, king of Wessex 10 12
Cenbert, father of Cædwalla 28
Ceol, king of Wessex 12
Ceolnoth, archbp. of Canterbury 45 50
Ceolred, king of Mercia 31
Ceolwulf, bishop of Lindsey 40 41
Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria 32 33
Ceolwulf, king of Wessex 12 13
Ceowulf, king of Mercia 43 44
Cerdic, king of Wessex 9
Chad, bishop of Lichfield 23
Chalk-hythe synod 39
Charles, earl of Flanders 186 194
Charles (the Fat) 56 57
Chertsey monastery 181
Chester bishopric 188
Chiche (St. Osythe) monastery 188
Cissa, king of the South Saxons 8
Claudius invades Britain 3
Cloveshoo synod 34 44
Coenred, or Kenred, king of Mercia 30 31
Coinwalch. See Kenwalk
Colburga, abbess of Berkeley 43
Coldingham monastery 27
Columba, abbat of Iona 11
Conwulf, or Cynewulf, bishop of Lindisfarne 33 38 39
Crida, king of Mercia 12
Cuichelm, king of the West Saxons 13-17
Cutha 1 12
Cuthbald, abbat 25 26
Cuthbert, archbp. of Canterbury 34 36
Cuthred, king 17 18 23
Cuthred, king of Kent 43
Cuthred, king of Wessex 33 34
Cuthwine defeats the Britons 12
Cynegils, king of Wessex 13-17
Cyneward, bishop of Wells 82 83
Cynewulf, king of Wessex 34-39
Cynric, king of Wessex 9 10

Danes arrive in England 39
Daniel, bishop of Winchester 31-34
David, king of Scotland 191 193 200 203
Degsastan 13
Denewulf, bishop of Winchester 66
Deus-dedit, archbp. of Canterbury 19-23
Doomsday book compiled 157
Dudoc, bishop of Wells 117 134
Dunstan (St.), archbishop of Canterbury 72 76 87

Eadbald, king of Kent 14-17
Eadbert, king of Kent 32 34
Eadbert, king of Northumbria 33-36 37
Eadbert Pren, king of Kent 40 41
Eadburga, married to Bertric 39
Eadhed, bishop of Sidnacester 27
Eadnoth, bishop of Dorchester 117 121
Eadsine, archbp. of Canterbury 112-122
Eafy, high steward, murdered 94
Ealhard, bishop of Dorchester 63
Ealstan, bishop of Sherborne 44 46 49
Eanbald I., archbishop of York 38 41
Eanbald II., archbishop of York 41 42
Eanbert, bishop of Hexham 43
Eanfled, daughter of king Edwin 15 15
Eanfrid, king of Bernicia 15 16
Eanwulf, earl of Somerton 46
Eappa, priest 22 23
Earconbert, king of Kent 17 23
Earcongota, daughter of king Earconbert 17
Eardulf, king of Northumbria 41 43
Eata, bishop of Lindisfarne 27
Ebb, the Frisian, slain 63
Edgar, king of Mercia 78-84
Edgar, etheling 139-144 151-179
Edgar, king of Scotland 173 180
Edgitha, Edward’s queen 115
Edmund, St., king of East Anglia 50
Edmund, the son of Edgar 82
Edmund Ironside 104-107
Ednoth, bishop of Dorchester 101 106
Edred, king 77 78 82
Edric, ealdorman of Mercia 97 104 107
Edward (the elder), king 64-73
Edward (the martyr) 66-86
Edward (the confessor) 103 113-140
Edward, son of Edmund, dies 132 133
Edwin, abbat of Abingdon 87
Edwin, etheling, drowned 73
Edwin, king of Northumbria 13 15 16
Edwy, etheling, banished by Canute 107
Edwy, king of Wessex 78
Egbald, abbat of Peterborough 28
Egbert, king of Kent 23 24
Egbert, king of Wessex 42-45
Egbert, bishop of York 33 37
Egbert, abbat of Iona 31 32
Egbert II., bishop of Lindisfarne 43
Egelric, bishop of Durham 114 132 144 151
Egelwine, bishop of Durham 32 51
Egfert, king of Mercia 39 40
Egfrid, king of Northumbria 24-28
Eleutherius, bishop of Rome 5
Eleutherius, bishop of Winchester 24
Elfgar, bishop of Elmham 108
Elfhun, bishop of London 101 102
Elfric, archbishop of York 109 110 129
Elfric, bishop of Elmham 112
Elfric, ealdorman 87 88 95
Elfrida, Edgar’s queen 82
Elfstan, bishop of London 81 88
Elfstan, bishop of Wiltshire 86
Elfsy, abbat of Peterborough 81
Elfsy, bishop of Winchester 109 111
Elfward, bishop of London 116
Elfwin, brother to king Egfrid 27
Elfwina, queen of Mercia 69
Elgar, earl of Mercia 129-133
Elmund, king of Kent 39
Elphege, bishop of Winchester 73 77
Elphege II., archbp. of Canterbury 87 89 96-101
Elstan, bishop of London 64
Elswitha, Alfred’s queen 65
Ely monastery 24 79
Emma Elgive 94 102 107 112 115 127
Eorpwald, king of East Anglia 16
Eric, king of Northumbria 77
Eric, earl of Northumbria 105 107
Ermenred, son of Eadbald 17
Ernost, bishop of Rochester, 145
Ernulf, bishop of Rochester 183 191
Escwin, king of Wessex 24 26
Escwy, bishop of Dorchester 88
Ethelard, king of Wessex 32 33
Ethelbald, king of Mercia 31-36
Ethelbald, king of Wessex 46 43
Ethelberga, daughter of king Ethelbert 16
Ethelbert, archbishop of York 37 88
Ethelbert, bishop of Whitherne 38 42
Ethelbert, king of Kent 10-14
Ethelbert II., king of Kent 34 36
Ethelbert, king of East Anglia 40
Ethelbert, k. of Kent, Essex, etc. 48 49
Ethelburga, Ina’s queen 32
Etheldrida, daughter of king Anna 24 27 79
Ethelfled, lady of Mercia 66 72
Ethelfrid, king of Northumbria 12-15
Ethelgar, archbishop of Canterbury 82 86 87
Ethelnoth, archbishop of Canterbury 108 112
Ethelred, king of Mercia 19-31
Ethelred, son of Moll 37-40
Ethelred [Ethered], king of Wessex 49-52
Ethelred; king of England 85-105
Ethelric, king of Northumbria 12
Ethelric, bishop of Selsey 112
Ethelswith, queen of Mercia 57
Ethelwalch, king of the South Saxons 23
Ethelwald, prince 64 65
Ethelwald, bishop of Lindisfarne 33
Ethelwald, bishop of Lichfield 45
Ethelward, king of Wessex 32 33
Ethelwerd, high-steward, slain 93
Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester 55 79 82 84 87
Ethelwulf, king of Wessex 45-48
Ethered, ealdorman of Mercia 57 60 66
Etheric, bishop of Dorchester 111
Eustace II., earl of Boulogne 119 164

Felix, bishop of Dunwich 17
Fingale synod 39
Forthhere 31 33
Frithbert, bishop of Hexham 37
Frithstan, bishop of Winchester 66 73
Frithwald, bishop of Whitherne 37

Gebmund, bishop of Rochester 29
Gerard, archbishop of York 180
Geta, son of Severus 5
Giso, bishop of Wells 134
Glastonbury minster 28 155
Godfrey, bishop of Bath 190
Godwin, earl, 111-129
Godwin III., bishop of Rochester 100
Gosfrith, bishop 162
Gothrun, a Danish king 53 54 57
Gratian, emperor 6
Gregory I., pope 12
Griffin, Welsh king 116-135
Grinketel, bishop of Selsey 113 117
Gundulph, bishop of Rochester 145
Gunnilde, banished 116
Guthfrith, king of Northumbria 73

Hadrian, abbat of St. Augustine’s 89
Halfdene, a Danish king 51-53 66
Hardecanute 109 114
Harold Harfager killed 138
Harold I., king of England 111-113
Harold II. 119-141
Hasten invades England 58-60
Heahmund, bishop of Sherborne 52
Heandred, bishop of Hexham 42
Heathfield (Hatfield) 27
Heca, bishop of Selsey, 116-118 133
Hedda, bishop 26 30
Hengist, a Saxon chieftain 7 8
Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester 197 203
Henry I., 157 159 169 174 200
Herbert Losange, bishop of Thetford 168
Herefrith, bishop of Sebey 45
Hereward plunders Peterborough 149 150
Herman, bishop of Sherborne 115 122 123 124
Higbald, bishop of Lindisfarne 39 43
Higbert, bishop of Dorchester 39
Hilda, abbess 27
Hingwar and Hubba 50
Honorius, archbp. of Canterbury 16 18
Honorius, pope 16
Horsa, a Saxon chieftain 7
Howel, king of West Wales (Cornwall) 73

Ida, king of Northumbria 10
Ina, king of Wessex 28-42
Ingild, brother of Ina 31
Iona monastery 11
Isle of Wight 7 9 23 63 94
Ithamar, bishop of Rochester 20 22

Jaruman, bishop of Repton 20 22
John (St.), of Beverley 28 32
Justus, archbishop of Canterbury 13

Kenebert, bishop of Winchester 42
Kenred, king of Mercia. See Coenred
Kentwin, king of Wessex 26 27
Kenulf, king of Mercia 41 43
Kenulf, bishop of Winchester 81 88 98
Kenwalk, king of Wessex 17-18
Kineward, bishop of Winchester 34
Kyneburg, sister of Wulfhere 19-22
Kyneswith, sister of Wulfhere 19-22
Kynsey, archbishop of York 29-34

Lambert, archbp. of Canterbury 37 40
Lanfranc, archbp. of Canterbury 145-148 164
Laureutius, archbp. of Canterbury 14 15
Leofgar, bishop of Hereford 132
Leofric, bishop of Devon 115
Leofric, earl 115 = 133
Leofric, bishop of Exeter 118
Leofsy, bishop of Worcester 111
Leofwine, bishop of Lichfield 130
Leo III., pope 142 143
Living, archbp. of Canterbury 101 108
Living, bishop of Worcester and Gloucester 113 115-118
Lothen and Irling arrive 116
Lothere, king of Kent 23
Lucius, king of the Britons 5
Ludecan, king of Mercia 44

Margaret, daughter of Edward 142 167
Malcolm III., king of Scotland 142 151 165-167
Maud, daughter of Malcolm 175
Maurice, bishop of London 146 175 180
Maximian, emperor 6
Mellitus, archbp. of Canterbury 13-15
Merewith, bishop of Somerset 111
Milred, bishop of Worcester 37
Moll Ethelwald, king of Northumbria 36
Morcar, earl of Northumbria 135-150
Mull, brother of Cædwalla 27-29

Nero, emperor of Rome 4
Ninias, bishop, converts the Picts 11
Nothelm, archbp. of Canterbury 33 34

Odda, earl of Devon 120 127
Odo, archbishop of Canterbury 78 79
Odo, bishop of Bayeux 155 160-164
Offa, son of king Sighere 31
Offa, king of Mercia 36-40 42
Olave, king of Norway, invades England 88 89 110
Osbern, bishop of Exeter 145
Osbert, king of Northumbria 49
Oskytel, a Danish king 53
Oskytel, archbishop of York 82
Oslac, ealdorman 81-84
Osred, king of Northumbria 31
Osred II., king of Northumbria 39 40
Osric I., king of Deira 16
Osric II., king of Northumbria 31 32
Ostritha, queen of Mercia 30
Oswald, archbishop of York 81 87
Oswald, king of Northumbria 16 17 66
Oswin, king of Deira 17 18
Oswin, prince 37
Oswy (Oswiu), king of Northumbria 17 24
Oswulph, king of Northumbria 36

Palladius, his mission to Ireland 6
Paulinus, archbishop of York 13-17
Paul’s (St.) cathedral burnt 79 158
Peada, ealdorman 18
Peada, king of Mercia 18 19
Penda, king of Mercia 15-18
Pelagius 6
Peter, bishop of Lichfield 145
Peterborough monastery 18-26 38 50 80 128 142 195
Petronilla (St.) 153
Petwine, bishop of Whitherne 37
Piegmund, archbishop of Canterbury Preface 59 72
Port arrives in England 9

Ralph, archbp. of Canterbury 182 187
Ranulf, bishop of Durham 173 175 176 196
Reculver monastery 24
Redwald, king of East Anglia 15
Rees, the Welshman 125
Reginald, king of Northumbria 72 76
Rheims, synod at 117
Robert, archbp. of Canterbury 119 122 123
Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln 166 188
Robert, bishop of Lichfield 183
Robert de Belesme 173 170 182
Robert de Limesey, bishop of Lichfield 146
Robert II., earl of Flanders 172 175-182
Robert II., earl of Northumbria 169-171
Robert, son of William I. 54 162-193
Roger, bishop of Salisbury 188 192
Romanus, bishop of Rochester 14
Romescot 171

Sabert, king of the East Saxons 13
Saxon Chronicle, its compilers Preface 1
Sebbi, king of the East Saxons 22
Selred, king of Essex, slain 34
Severus, emperor 5
Sexberga, eldest daughter of king Anna 17 24
Sexwulf, bishop of Lichfield 19-26 31
Sideman, bishop of Crediton 85
Sigebert, king of Wessex 34 35
Sighard, son of king Sebbi 22
Sihtric, king of Northumbria 73
Siric, king of the East Angles 42
Siric or Sigic, archbishop of Canterbury 87 89
Siward, archbp. of Canterbury 115 118 123
Siward, bishop of Rochester 134
Siward, earl 115 126 129-132
Sparhafoc, bishop of London 119 122
Stephen, king 200-205
Stigand, bishop of Elmham 114 115
Stigand, trans, to Winchester 116 118
Stigand, to Canterbury 128 129
Stuff, lord of Isle of Wight 9 10
Suebhard, king of Kent 29
Sweyn, earl 116 -126
Sweyn, king of Denmark, invades England 89 95 101 103
Sweyn III., king of Denmark, invades England 148 153
Swithulf, bishop of Rochester 63
Swithun, bishop of Winchester 49

Tatwine, archbishop of Canterbury 33
Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury 203
Theologild, archbp. of Canterbury 45
Theodore, archbp. of Canterbury 22-28
Theodosius the Younger 6
Thomas, archbp. of York 145 175 180 182
Thored, Gunner’s son 82 88
Thurkill 98 102 109
Thurkytel, a Danish earl 63
Thurkytel, son of Nafan 105
Tilbert, bishop of Hexham 38
Thurstan, archbp. of York 182 186 189
Tidfrith, bishop of Dunwich 42
Tobias, bishop of Rochester Preface 29 32
Tosty, son of Godwin 123-141
Tremerin, bishop of St. David’s 131
Trumwine, bishop of the Picts 27
Tuda, bishop of Lindisfarne 20-23
Tumbert, bishop of Hexham 27

Ulf, bishop of Dorchester 121 123
Ulfkytel, earl of East Anglia 95 99
Utred, earl of Northumbria 101 105

Valentinian, emperor 6
Vespasian, emperor 4
Vortigern, king 7

Walcher, bishop of Durham 154
Waleram, earl of Mellent 190-196
Walkelin, bishop of Winchester 173
Waltheof, earl of Northumbria 144 148 152 153
Werburh, Ceolred’s queen 39
Westminster Abbey 136
Whitgar, lord of Isle of Wight 9 10
Whitherne bishopric 11
Wigbert, bishop of Sherborne 13
Wighard, bishop-elect 24
Wight, Isle of 7 9 23 63 94
Wigthun, bishop of Winchester 45
Wilfrid, archbishop of York 20-31
Wilfrid II., archbishop of York 28
Wilfrid, bishop of Worcester 34
William, bishop of Durham 146 162
William, bishop of Elmham 146
William Curlioil, archbishop of Canterbury 188 196 203
William, earl of Moreton 73
William, earl of Normandy 178
William Giffard, bishop of Winchester 175 177 189 197
William I. (the Conqueror) 110 138-161
William, prince, son of Henry I. 183 185 186
William Rufus 146 161-174
Winchester cathedral 17
Wini, bishop 20
Withlaf, king of Mercia 44 45
Withred, king of Kent 29-32
Wulfgar, abbat of Abingdon 87-107
Wulfgar, bishop of Wiltshire 16
Wulfhelm, archbishop of Canterbury 73
Wulfhere, king of Mercia 19-26
Wulfnoth, child 97 98
Wulfred, archbp. of Canterbury 43-45
Wulfric, abbat of St. Augustine’s 115
Wulfstan, archbishop of York 76-78
Wulfstan, deacon, dies 79
Wulfsy, bishop of Lichfield 129
Wulfwy, bishop of Dorchester 129 142
Wulstan, bishop of London 92
Wulstan, bishop of Worcester 162
Wulstan II., archbishop of York 108

York minster 15

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